FAQs

Terminology

How to force uninstall of LEAPS Android Manager application?


On Samsung Tablet: Settings -> Apps -> Storage (at the bottom) -> Applications -> LEAPS Android Manager -> Uninstall




What interfaces can be used for communication with the backend system?


When the gateway approach is used in tracking and data telemetry, LEAPS provides various connectors for communication with the systems on the internet network. The following connectors are currently supported

  • MQTT version 3.1.1 or newer.
The following picture illustrates interfacing between LEAPS and internet network.





General

Can I send and receive user data on the edge nodes using LEAPS?


Depending on selected network profile, the Anchors and Tags can send and/or receive user data. Data sent from the Module toward the Server is called Uplink. Data sent from the Server toward the Module is called Downlink. Please, see the System Performance comparison for more details.




What location techniques are supported in LEAPS?


LEAPS supports various locating techniques including

  • TWR - Two-Way Ranging
  • RTWR - Reverse Two-Way Ranging
  • TDOA - Time Difference of Arrival using Aloha media access
  • TTDOA - Time Difference of Arrival using TDMA media access
  • RTDOA - Reverse Time Difference of Arrival
Versatility makes it easy to balance the system requirements, costs, deployment time and maintenance complexity. Applications range from simple distance proximity, to high speed tracking or navigation of unlimited amount of receivers.




Can I use LEAPS to navigate and track nodes at the same time?


Yes, most of network profiles allow multiple modes of location service. Depending on the selected network profile, the Tag's position can be used in both navigation and tracking modes at the same time. The data are available via on-module and server API. Please, see the System Performance comparison for more details.




Does LEAPS support wireless Ultra-wideband backhaul?


Depending on the selected network profile, the system can support wireless Ultra-wideband backhaul. The location and user data can be sent toward the Server and the nodes using Ultra-wideband radio. There are two types of backhaul supported:

  • Non-routing UWB backhaul - Is a one-hop backhaul where a bridge enabled device can forward the data between a Server over Ethernet and a node over UWB.
  • Routing UWB backhaul - Is a multi-hop backhaul where a bridge enabled device can forward the data between a Server on Ethernet and a node on UWB. Other infrastructure devices can participate on forwarding the data with other nodes via UWB. Routing mechanism is fully automated and adaptive to the changes in the network.
A typical network with Non-routing UWB backhaul consists of Tags and depending on the selected network profile some or all Anchors are with Ethernet connectivity (with bridge option enabled). A typical network with Routing UWB backhaul consists of Tags, some Anchors without Ethernet and some Anchors with Ethernet connectivity (with bridge option enabled). Please see the System Performance comparison for more details.




How can I configure, receive and send data using a node?


LEAPS modules can be configured and data can be handled using the following APIs

  • Bluetooth - New API over encrypted channel helps to properly handle data fragmentation commonly experienced on Bluetooth. The API is in TLV format and it supports the same command set as used for UART, SPI and USB (in the future).
  • UART - TLV binary format
  • SPI - TLV binary format
  • USB - TLV binary format (in the future)
  • Shell over UART - Debug shell in human readable format




Where the location and user uplink data are available?


The backhaul uplink location and user data are available via these APIs

  • Bluetooth - TLV binary format
  • UART - TLV binary format (limited data throughput)
  • SPI - TLV binary format
  • Data Server - MQTT protocol




What are the downlink events and commands?


They are service commands and events that provides the following services via the Data Server

  • Collection of signal map between the Anchors - can be used for installation and debug purpose.
  • Collection of distances between the Anchors - can be used for auto-positioning of the Anchors.
  • Remote control of GPIOs on the module.
  • and more.




How does security in LEAPS work?


The following security mechanism are implemented in LEAPS

  • Secure key storage - root of trust using hardware secure element.
  • Secure boot - to guarantee the consistency of the firmware.
  • Node authentication - nodes on the network are authorized using asymmetric authentication. Client's key set is possible.
  • Key exchange - the network key is exchanged securely and automatically between the authorized nodes.
  • Node sign-up - when enabled, only nodes that are authorized can connect to the network.
  • Node access revoke - revoke access for nodes already connected to the network.
  • Encryption for UWB and Bluetooth communication - data frames sent via UWB and Bluetooth communication are encrypted using AES-128.
  • Data encryption is resistant against attacks
    • Frame replay
    • Unauthorized nodes
    • Length extension attack
    • Data extraction when AES cipher block repeats
    • Power interruption
    • DoS
  • A unique way to generate entropy uses network synchronicity which makes it very difficult to apply an attack even if the key is stolen.
  • Highly optimized for embedded module with memory constraints.
  • Low data overhead being sent over UWB.
  • Changes in infrastructure detection - helps to detect when the infrastructure nodes have been moved.
  • Whole chain security - data are all protected from the input point until the output interface of the last component.
  • All communication via TCP/IP uses TLS 1.2.
  • The system should undergo penetration test in the future.




How many Anchors and Tags a LEAPS network can have?


The network stack is designed in the way that it always aims to reuse the air-time using an effective mechanism for both Anchors and Tags. In short, if there is a condition that attenuates the signal of any transmitting node in a way it will not influence negatively transmission and reception by any other node then that air-time can be reused. This allows virtually unlimited amount of nodes to be deployed in a spread area where this condition can be created. All of this happens automatically using effective mechanisms implemented in LEAPS.




Can I use the unused GPIOs on the module?


Yes, there are GPIOs available for your applications. They can be controlled via API - UART, SPI or MQTT.




Is it possible to send data between the Anchors/Tags and the server?


Yes, depending on the profile it is possible to send data from the Anchors or Tags to the LEAPS Server. There two types of data

  • Uplink - data from the Anchors and Tags to the LEAPS Server.
  • Downlink - data from the LEAPS Server to the Anchors or Tags.




What API interfaces are available?


LEAPS modules can be configured and data can be handled using the following APIs

  • Bluetooth - New API over encrypted channel helps to properly handle data fragmentation commonly experienced on Bluetooth. The API is in TLV format and it supports the same command set as used for UART, SPI and USB (in the future).
  • UART - TLV binary format
  • SPI - TLV binary format
  • USB - TLV binary format (in the future)
  • Shell over UART - Debug shell in human readable format




What does LEAPS profile mean, and how is it unique from variant?


Variant is pricing model. LEAPS modules are offered in 3 variants with different sets of supported networking profiles. The users can choose what would best fit for their applications and budgets. Profile is how the network protocol is organized. Each profile is designed to provide optimal performance for a specific type of applications. Depending on variant, one or several profiles is supported. The user has to select the profile which best fit its application.





Technology

Can I send and receive user data on the edge nodes using LEAPS?


Depending on selected network profile, the Anchors and Tags can send and/or receive user data. Data sent from the Module toward the Server is called Uplink. Data sent from the Server toward the Module is called Downlink. Please, see the System Performance comparison for more details.




What location techniques are supported in LEAPS?


LEAPS supports various locating techniques including

  • TWR - Two-Way Ranging
  • RTWR - Reverse Two-Way Ranging
  • TDOA - Time Difference of Arrival using Aloha media access
  • TTDOA - Time Difference of Arrival using TDMA media access
  • RTDOA - Reverse Time Difference of Arrival
Versatility makes it easy to balance the system requirements, costs, deployment time and maintenance complexity. Applications range from simple distance proximity, to high speed tracking or navigation of unlimited amount of receivers.




Can I use LEAPS to navigate and track nodes at the same time?


Yes, most of network profiles allow multiple modes of location service. Depending on the selected network profile, the Tag's position can be used in both navigation and tracking modes at the same time. The data are available via on-module and server API. Please, see the System Performance comparison for more details.




Does LEAPS support wireless Ultra-wideband backhaul?


Depending on the selected network profile, the system can support wireless Ultra-wideband backhaul. The location and user data can be sent toward the Server and the nodes using Ultra-wideband radio. There are two types of backhaul supported:

  • Non-routing UWB backhaul - Is a one-hop backhaul where a bridge enabled device can forward the data between a Server over Ethernet and a node over UWB.
  • Routing UWB backhaul - Is a multi-hop backhaul where a bridge enabled device can forward the data between a Server on Ethernet and a node on UWB. Other infrastructure devices can participate on forwarding the data with other nodes via UWB. Routing mechanism is fully automated and adaptive to the changes in the network.
A typical network with Non-routing UWB backhaul consists of Tags and depending on the selected network profile some or all Anchors are with Ethernet connectivity (with bridge option enabled). A typical network with Routing UWB backhaul consists of Tags, some Anchors without Ethernet and some Anchors with Ethernet connectivity (with bridge option enabled). Please see the System Performance comparison for more details.




How can I configure, receive and send data using a node?


LEAPS modules can be configured and data can be handled using the following APIs

  • Bluetooth - New API over encrypted channel helps to properly handle data fragmentation commonly experienced on Bluetooth. The API is in TLV format and it supports the same command set as used for UART, SPI and USB (in the future).
  • UART - TLV binary format
  • SPI - TLV binary format
  • USB - TLV binary format (in the future)
  • Shell over UART - Debug shell in human readable format




Where the location and user uplink data are available?


The backhaul uplink location and user data are available via these APIs

  • Bluetooth - TLV binary format
  • UART - TLV binary format (limited data throughput)
  • SPI - TLV binary format
  • Data Server - MQTT protocol




What are the downlink events and commands?


They are service commands and events that provides the following services via the Data Server

  • Collection of signal map between the Anchors - can be used for installation and debug purpose.
  • Collection of distances between the Anchors - can be used for auto-positioning of the Anchors.
  • Remote control of GPIOs on the module.
  • and more.




How does security in LEAPS work?


The following security mechanism are implemented in LEAPS

  • Secure key storage - root of trust using hardware secure element.
  • Secure boot - to guarantee the consistency of the firmware.
  • Node authentication - nodes on the network are authorized using asymmetric authentication. Client's key set is possible.
  • Key exchange - the network key is exchanged securely and automatically between the authorized nodes.
  • Node sign-up - when enabled, only nodes that are authorized can connect to the network.
  • Node access revoke - revoke access for nodes already connected to the network.
  • Encryption for UWB and Bluetooth communication - data frames sent via UWB and Bluetooth communication are encrypted using AES-128.
  • Data encryption is resistant against attacks
    • Frame replay
    • Unauthorized nodes
    • Length extension attack
    • Data extraction when AES cipher block repeats
    • Power interruption
    • DoS
  • A unique way to generate entropy uses network synchronicity which makes it very difficult to apply an attack even if the key is stolen.
  • Highly optimized for embedded module with memory constraints.
  • Low data overhead being sent over UWB.
  • Changes in infrastructure detection - helps to detect when the infrastructure nodes have been moved.
  • Whole chain security - data are all protected from the input point until the output interface of the last component.
  • All communication via TCP/IP uses TLS 1.2.
  • The system should undergo penetration test in the future.




How many Anchors and Tags a LEAPS network can have?


The network stack is designed in the way that it always aims to reuse the air-time using an effective mechanism for both Anchors and Tags. In short, if there is a condition that attenuates the signal of any transmitting node in a way it will not influence negatively transmission and reception by any other node then that air-time can be reused. This allows virtually unlimited amount of nodes to be deployed in a spread area where this condition can be created. All of this happens automatically using effective mechanisms implemented in LEAPS.




Can I use the unused GPIOs on the module?


Yes, there are GPIOs available for your applications. They can be controlled via API - UART, SPI or MQTT.




Is it possible to send data between the Anchors/Tags and the server?


Yes, depending on the profile it is possible to send data from the Anchors or Tags to the LEAPS Server. There two types of data

  • Uplink - data from the Anchors and Tags to the LEAPS Server.
  • Downlink - data from the LEAPS Server to the Anchors or Tags.




What API interfaces are available?


LEAPS modules can be configured and data can be handled using the following APIs

  • Bluetooth - New API over encrypted channel helps to properly handle data fragmentation commonly experienced on Bluetooth. The API is in TLV format and it supports the same command set as used for UART, SPI and USB (in the future).
  • UART - TLV binary format
  • SPI - TLV binary format
  • USB - TLV binary format (in the future)
  • Shell over UART - Debug shell in human readable format




What does LEAPS profile mean, and how is it unique from variant?


Variant is pricing model. LEAPS modules are offered in 3 variants with different sets of supported networking profiles. The users can choose what would best fit for their applications and budgets. Profile is how the network protocol is organized. Each profile is designed to provide optimal performance for a specific type of applications. Depending on variant, one or several profiles is supported. The user has to select the profile which best fit its application.





Tags

How to force uninstall of LEAPS Android Manager application?


On Samsung Tablet: Settings -> Apps -> Storage (at the bottom) -> Applications -> LEAPS Android Manager -> Uninstall




What interfaces can be used for communication with the backend system?


When the gateway approach is used in tracking and data telemetry, LEAPS provides various connectors for communication with the systems on the internet network. The following connectors are currently supported

  • MQTT version 3.1.1 or newer.
The following picture illustrates interfacing between LEAPS and internet network.





Infrastructure

Is Ethernet required for the Anchors?


Ethernet is required only if Tracking location mode is used. Depending on the selected network profile, it might be required on all Anchors or only on some of them. This allows to balance the system requirements, costs, deployment time and maintenance complexity.




How many Anchors can I install on my network?


For a network where the Anchors are installed following a certain rules, virtually unlimited amount of Anchors can be deployed over a spread area. In a building like area, this condition is easier to achieve. In an open-space area it is necessary to keep distance between the Anchors. If all Anchors are placed in range with each other, the maximum of 30 Anchors can be connected to the network. The rest will wait until a free slot is available. The Anchors form a network and solve the issues automatically.





Server and Tools

How to force uninstall of LEAPS Android Manager application?


On Samsung Tablet: Settings -> Apps -> Storage (at the bottom) -> Applications -> LEAPS Android Manager -> Uninstall




What interfaces can be used for communication with the backend system?


When the gateway approach is used in tracking and data telemetry, LEAPS provides various connectors for communication with the systems on the internet network. The following connectors are currently supported

  • MQTT version 3.1.1 or newer.
The following picture illustrates interfacing between LEAPS and internet network.





Need any help?

Check out our FAQ or send us a message. We will get back to you shortly.

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LEAPS s.r.o.

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140 00, Prague 4

Czech Republic, EU

Phone: +420 281 911 591

Email: info@leapslabs.com

Copyright: © 2019-2020 by LEAPS.

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